Most of the cases we consider are from Iran and Afghanistan. Converts from Afghanistan are given protection because they risk persecution. The situation in Iran is such that some people risk persecution while others do not.
A number of those who apply for protection in Norway say they have converted to Christianity. Asylum seekers from Afghanistan and Iran in particular state that they have converted. Most of them say that they converted after arriving in Norway as asylum seekers, while others say that they converted in their country of origin.
The situation for Christian converts is different in these countries. An Afghan convert who returns to Afghanistan risks being persecuted. The crucial question in these cases is whether the person has actually converted. You can live as a convert in Iran without being persecuted. The crucial factor is therefore how the person practices their Christian faith.
We base our consideration of all convert cases on information from the Norwegian Country of Origin Information Centre (Landinfo) and other sources to ensure that we are up to date about the risk people who have converted run in their country of origin.
Extended right to board meeting
In August 2021, a change in the Immigration Regulations gave converts an extended right to have their case asessed in a board meeting. This means that asylum cases, and cases concerning protection against return, where the topic is the credibility of claims of conversion or apostasy from a religious view, must be assessed in a board meeting. The extended right to a board meeting only applies when the issue of conversion has not previously been assessed in a board meeting or a court case.
Christian converts risk persecution in Afghanistan, and an Afghan who has converted to Christianity will be given protection in Norway. The crucial matter in convert cases from Afghanistan is therefore whether the conversion is credible or not. We have to assess this in each case.
The most important factor in the assessment of whether the applicant has converted is the applicant’s own statement about his/her faith. Affiliation with Islam is a fundamental precondition for groups’ status and position and for an individual’s position within a collective group, primarily an extended family. An Afghan who leaves Islam is expected to have reflected on the consequences this could have for himself and his family. We also place emphasis on baptismal certificates and statements about the applicant’s Christian activity. However, the fact that the applicant has been baptised and has taken part in the activities of a congregation is not sufficient to conclude that he has converted. In judgment LB-2014-34531 (external link), the Court of Appeal states that a high level of activity in Christian communities may in some cases be explained by a desire to appear to be a believer in relation to the immigration authorities. Representatives of the congregation, who are not always aware of the applicant’s previous statements, may have another impression of the credibility of information than that formed by UNE. The members of the congregation will not normally have other information than that provided by the person in question about himself.
On this page you can read more about how we consider cases from Afghanistan. There you will also find a list of selected sources we monitor and use in our case assessments.
Number of Afghan convert cases 2018 - 2021
In the period 2018 to 2021, UNE has considered approximately 130 cases with conversion as the theme. Of the approximately 130 decisions, almost 35% were considered in a board meeting. Some people have received several decisions in their case during the period. The approximately 130 decisions apply to around 90 people. Of these 90 people, approximately 23% received a permit.
Iran is an Islamic Republic in which religion has an important role, and renouncing Islam is a punishable offence. However, not all Iranian converts risk persecution. It is unlikely that a Christian convert who engages in no or little external activity and maintains a low profile will run such a risk. The crucial matter in most convert cases from Iran is therefore not whether the applicant has converted, but what kind of activity he or she will engage in on their return to the country of origin.
In order to find out how an applicant is likely to act on return to Iran, we look at how he or she practices his or her Christian faith in Norway. We place emphasis on baptismal certificates and statements about their conversion and Christian activity from the congregation or other supporters. It may be of relevance if the applicant says that he or she converted in Iran. We then consider whether the applicant’s activity will lead to persecution on return to Iran. There must be a real risk for a person to be given protection in Norway.
On this page you can read more about how we consider cases from Iran. There you will also find a list of selected sources we monitor and use in our case assessments.
Number of Iranian convert cases 2018 - 2021
In the period 2018 to 2021, UNE has considered approximately 170 cases with conversion as the theme. Of the approximately 170 decisions, almost 30% were considered in a board meeting. Some people have received several decisions in their case during the period. The approximately 170 decisions apply to around 120 people. Of these 120 people, approximately 30% received a permit.
The courts have found in favour of UNE in most court cases
UNE has been served with a summons in some convert cases. The court then decides whether UNE’s decision is valid or not. If the decision is valid, the court finds in favour of UNE. The figures show the number of judgments from 2017 to 2021 where conversion was a topic and the applicant was from Iran or Afghanistan. There were two Supreme Court judgments during the period.
UNE District Court 2017 – 2021
UNE Court of Appeal 2017 – 2021
The figures are based on manual registrations, with the reservation that some cases may not be registered or registered incorrectly.